Chiropractic focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the musculo-skeletal system, without the use of drugs or surgery. Chiropractic in particular deals with the detection and treatment of the vertebral subluxation complex (VSC) which has come to be known as subluxation, segmental dysfunction, joint dysfunction, Functional Spinal Lesion, Joint Dysfunction With Hypomobility, Joint Complex Dysfunction, etc. These physiological lesions are considered a movement disorder. (

The 4 dimensional (4D) model of vertebral subluxation is the most modern, comprehensive and directly notes these physiological lesions effects upon the centrally integrated state of the brain. The 4D model components as noted in Dr. Christopher Kent’s Research and Dynamic Chiropractic Article. (

  • Dysafferentation, representing the afferent portion of the SPC. Aberrant afferent input to the CNS may result in qualitatively and/or quantitatively inappropriate responses to changes in the internal or external environment.1 In the contemporary jargon of the computer industry, there is “garbage in – garbage out.” Dr. Fred Barge, in his book One Cause, One Cure, stated that the cause of disease is “The body’s inability to comprehend itself and/or its environment.”3 Such “comprehension” is dependent upon interference-free afferent input.
  • Dyskinesia refers to distortion or impairment of voluntary movement.9 Spinal motion may be reliably measured using inclinometry.10 Alterations in regional ranges of motion are associated with vertebral subluxation.11
  • Dysponesis is abnormal involuntary muscle activity. Dysponesis refers to a reversible physiopathologic state, consisting of errors in energy expenditure which are capable of producing functional disorders. Dysponesis consists mainly of covert errors in action potential output from the motor and premotor areas of the cortex and the consequences of that output. These neurophysiological reactions may result from responses to environmental events, bodily sensations, and emotions. The resulting aberrant muscle activity may be evaluated using surface electrode techniques.12 Typically, static surface electromyography (SMEG) with axial loading is used to evaluate innate responses to gravitational stress.13
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates the actions of organs, glands, and blood vessels. Acquired dysautonomia may be associated with a broad array of functional abnormalities.14-19 Autonomic dystonia may be evaluated by measuring skin temperature differentials.20 Uematsu, et al., determined normative values for skin temperature differences based upon asymptomatic “normal” individuals. The authors stated, “These values can be used as a standard in assessment of sympathetic nerve function, and the degree of asymmetry is a quantifiable indicator of dysfunction … Deviations from the normal values will allow suspicion of neurological pathology to be quantitated and therefore can improve assessment and lead to proper clinical management.”21 Skin temperature differentials are associated with vertebral subluxation.22 Autonomic tone and balance may also be evaluated by measuring heart rate variability.23